Article title: Times New Roman; 14 pt; bold; alignment centered; single-line spacing; All Caps (max. 100 characters with spaces).

Author details: Times New Roman; 12 pt; single-line spacing; alignment centered. Please write the author's details in the following order:

John Galt
Ayn Rand University - New York, USA

Abstract and keywords: Between 150 and 200 words (5-7 keywords. Use words that will help others find your work); Times New Roman; 12 pt; single-line spacing; justify. Write your abstract using concise but complete sentences. Get to the point quickly and always use the past tense because you are reporting on a study that has been completed. You need to include four things: 1) your research problem and objectives, 2) your methods, 3) your key results or arguments, and 4) your conclusion.

Article text: Times New Roman; 12 pt; justify; 1.5 line spacing; margins: Top: 2,5 cm; Bottom: 2,5 cm; Left: 3 cm; Right: 3 cm. The scope of the submitted text should not exceed more than 8000 words. The text should be written in the neuter gender, concisely, with correct orthography. Latin phrases should be set in italics.

Writing an effective article involves several key components to ensure it is engaging, informative, and well-structured. Here is a breakdown of what you should include:

  1. Introduction
  • Background: Provide context and background information on the topic.
  • Problem Statement: Clearly state the research problem or question.
  • Objective: Outline the main objectives or hypotheses of the study.
  • Significance: Explain the importance and potential impact of the research.
  1. Literature Review
  • Previous Research: Summarize relevant previous studies and how they relate to the current research.
  • Gap in Knowledge: Identify gaps in the existing literature that the current study aims to address.
  1. Methods
  • Study Design: Describe the overall design of the study.
  • Participants/Samples: Detail the characteristics and selection criteria of participants or samples.
  • Materials and Instruments: List and describe the tools, instruments, or materials used in the study.
  • Procedure: Explain the procedures and protocols followed during the study.
  • Data Analysis: Describe the statistical or analytical methods used to interpret the data.
  1. Results
  • Findings: Present the main findings of the study clearly and logically.
  • Tables and Figures: Include relevant tables, figures, and graphs to illustrate the results.
  • Statistical Significance: Report the statistical significance of the results where applicable.
  1. Discussion
  • Interpretation: Interpret the results and discuss their implications.
  • Comparison: Compare the findings with previous research and theoretical expectations.
  • Limitations: Acknowledge the limitations of the study.
  • Future Research: Suggest areas for future research based on the findings and limitations.
  1. Conclusion
  • Summary: Summarize the main findings and their significance.
  • Final Thoughts: Provide a final takeaway or recommendation based on the study’s results.

The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after reading the article. In conclusion, you summarize the article’s findings and generalize their importance, discuss ambiguous data, and recommend further research. These include:

  • Presenting the last word on the issues you raised in your article.
  • Summarize your thoughts and convey the larger implications of your study.
  • Demonstrating the importance of your ideas.
  • Introducing possible new or expanded ways of thinking about the research problem. 

Quotations: If they are brief (3 lines or fewer), quotations should be run on with the text. Longer quotations should be indented without quotation marks. All indented quotations should be typed single-spaced.

Citation style: The author should follow Chicago Style (author-date system) for referencing, for example: (Dahl 1989, 45); (Geddes 1999, 134-43); (Linz 1975). All references should be given in full at first mention. Subsequent citations can be abbreviated. Footnotes should be kept to a minimum.

Headings and subheadings: Times New Roman; 12 pt; bold.

Tables: Times New Roman; bold; size 10; align heading left; single line spacing. Tables must be created in Word, not Excel. The table heading is situated above the table. The source is written in parentheses immediately after the title of the table. Example: (Source: Dahl 1989, 45)

Figures: Times New Roman; bold; size 10; alignment centered; single line spacing. The authors must submit original electronic copies of the figures applied in the article in TIFF, JPG, or PNG format. The figure heading is situated under the figure. Consider aligning tables and figures at the center. The source is written in parentheses immediately after the title of the figure. Example: (Source: Dahl 1989, 45)

Dates: Dates should be given in the form: 26 December 1981.

References: Authors submitting manuscripts to JLPE are encouraged to prioritize references from diverse sources, promoting a well-rounded and inclusive literature review. The list of references appears at the end of the article and provides more detailed information about the sources you cited. The titles of the works in the list of references will be indicated in the language in which they were published and translated into English in square brackets [ ]. Each entry in the list of references also begins with the author’s last name and the publication date so that your reader can easily find any source they encounter in the text. For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the list of references; in the text, list only the first author, followed by et al. It is alphabetized by the author's last name.

References Examples:

Author's surname, Name. year of publication. “Article Title”. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs 8 (1):229-4, DOI: XXX-XXX

Author's surname, Name. year of publication. Book Title. place of publication: publisher.

Contributions in compilations and edited volumes:
Author's surname, Name. year of publication. “Title”, In: editor's surname, forename initials (ed./eds.) Compilation (place of publication: publisher), pages interval, DOI: XXX-XXX

Electronic documents
Some examples of electronic format documents are internet pages, journal articles published on the internet or journal articles retrieved from a fulltext database. Some documents are published in both paper and electronic formats, for example, government reports and journal articles. Please cite according to the format you have accessed.

For electronic journal articles, record the descriptive elements specified above for journal articles. In addition, record relevant data from the list below.

The following is a list of common descriptive elements you may need to record for citation of an electronic document. This list is comprehensive. The elements you record will depend upon the type of electronic document you are describing.
- Authors surname and initials or given name if present
- Title of the document
- Title of the webpage
- Database name
- Page or section numbers, if given
- Format (online or CDrom or electronic if you are not sure)
- Year of publication or latest update date
- Internet address

*Titles of books and journal titles should be italicized. The use of capitals and punctuation should be consistent and will vary according to the citation style being used.

Internet (URL):
When articles, books, or official documents are accessed via the internet, the reference should be formatted as described above, including the full URL where the document is posted, as well as the date it was accessed.

Author's surname, Name. year of publication. Book Title. place of publication: publisher, available at: http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (December 26, 2021).

Legislation: Acts and Regulations
The titles of pieces of legislation (Acts, Regulations, rules, and by-laws) should be cited exactly - do not alter spelling or capitalization.

In-Text Citation:
Title of the Act Year
Title of the Act Year (abbreviation of the jurisdiction)

Title of the Act and Date of publication (abbreviation of the jurisdiction)

Note: Legislation is fully included in a list of references, in alphabetical order among other references.

We suggest utilizing reference management software like Zotero, Mendeley, and similar tools.


Journal of Liberty and International Affairs welcomes reviews of recently published books.
Book reviews are considered for publication based on their relevance to the journal's audience. These reviews should include a summary of the book and a critical analysis of its strengths and weaknesses.

For submitting a book review, authors should follow the requirements:

  • A book review should not exceed 1.500 words.
  • State the name of the author(s), the title of the book (the subtitle, if any, should also be included), the place of publication, the publishing house, the year of publication, and the number of pages.
  • Review authors should describe the topic of the book under consideration, but not at the expense of providing an evaluation of the book and its potential contribution to the relevant field of research. The review should provide a balance between description and critical evaluation.
  • An exact page reference should be provided for all direct quotations used in reviewing the book.

Book reviews should be submitted in MS Word format to:

List of abbreviations frequently used in academic publishing

et al. - et alia (and others)
i.e. - id est (that is)
e.g. - exempli gratia (for example)
cf. - confer (compare)
etc. - et cetera (and so forth)
viz. - videlicet (namely)
ibid. - ibidem (in the same place)
op. cit. - opere citato (in the work already cited)
n.d. - no date
n.p. - no place (of publication)
p. - page
pp. - pages
vol. - volume
ed. - edition
ed(s). - editor(s)
trans. - translated by
repr. - reprinted
sec. - section
para. - paragraph
ch. - chapter
fig. - figure
tbl. - table
eq. - equation
ref. - reference
bib. - bibliography
anno domini - in the year of our Lord (A.D.)
B.C.E. - Before Common Era
STEM - Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics
IR - International Relations
EU - European Union
USA - United States of America
UN - United Nations
NGO - Non-Governmental Organization
OPEC - Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
GDP - Gross Domestic Product
NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization
BRICS - Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa
NPT - Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
SCOTUS - Supreme Court of the United States
ECHR - European Court of Human Rights
IPR - Intellectual Property Rights
ADR - Alternative Dispute Resolution
CJEU - Court of Justice of the European Union
HRC - Human Rights Council
Habeas Corpus - You shall have the body (a legal writ)
CPI - Consumer Price Index
GNI - Gross National Income
FDI - Foreign Direct Investment
OECD - Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
IMF - International Monetary Fund
PPP - Purchasing Power Parity
BRM - Business Risk Management
ROI - Return on Investment
NBER - National Bureau of Economic Research
UNESCO - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
WTO - World Trade Organization
ILO - International Labour Organization
FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization
ICJ - International Court of Justice
ICC - International Criminal Court
UNDP - United Nations Development Programme
WFP - World Food Programme