Journal of Liberty and International Affairs https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia <p><span class="text14_333"><span class="blue16"><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs </em>is a triannual (3 issues per year), international, open-access, and peer-reviewed journal published by the<em> Institute for Research and European Studies. </em>It welcomes submissions from political sciences, international relations, international law, and related fields. The journal embraces multi- and interdisciplinary scholarship and comparative approaches. </span></span><strong>The journal is <a href="http://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/ia">indexed</a> in SCOPUS, EBSCO, DOAJ, CEEOL, SSOAR, ERIHPLUS, HeinOnline, ANVUR, Columbia International Affairs Online, ProQuest, UGC-CARE List Group II, etc.</strong></p> <hr /> <p>ISSN: <span class="grey121">1857-9760</span> (online)</p> <p><strong>Submit Paper by Email: contact@e-jlia.com</strong></p> <p><a href="https://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/about/submissions"><strong>Author Guidelines</strong></a></p> <hr /> Institute for Research and European Studies en-US Journal of Liberty and International Affairs 1857-9760 ANALYZING THE VARIABLES THAT INFLUENCE ACCESS TO BANK FINANCING FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN KOSOVO AND NORTH MACEDONIA https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/315 <p><em>This study aims to analyze variables that influence access to bank loans by SMEs in Kosovo and North Macedonia. Research methodology is compound by primary and secondary data. We hypothesized that the age of the SMEs, business size, written business plan, collateral type, and business experience before starting as an owner, owner education, and owner gender influence access to bank loans for SMEs. Econometric model results revealed that age of the SMEs, business size, and written business plan has a significant influence on bank loans borrowed by SMEs, while, collateral type, business experience before starting as an owner, owner level of education, and owner gender have no significant influence on bank loans borrowed by SMEs in the Republic of Kosovo. Furthermore, from the results obtained we revealed that age of the SMEs, business size, written business plan, and owners’ level of education has a significant influence on bank loan borrowed by SMEs, whereas, collateral type, business experience before starting as owner and owners gender have no significant influence on bank loans borrowed by SMEs in the Republic of North Macedonia. The findings suggest some future lines of research at the end and provide recommendations for the main stakeholders of this field of study.</em></p> Filloreta Kunoviku-Demiri Qazim Tmava Esat A. Durguti Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 12 32 10.47305/JLIA2137012kd #METOO AND US POLITICS: ANALYSING THE TWITTER CONVERSATION https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/316 <p><em>The #MeToo movement has had a profound cultural impact on US society, and notably on US party politics. While many studies have addressed the #MeToo-related controversy arising from the Brett Kavanaugh nomination to Supreme Court Justice in 2018, the relationship between #MeToo and US politics before this event has remained understudied. This article, therefore, addresses this gap by looking at the role of politics at the beginning of the #MeToo movement. Focusing on the first six months of online activity on Twitter (October 2017 – April 2018), over 2 million tweets with the #MeToo hashtag are analyzed to identify the main activity patterns across the dataset and to gain insight on user behavior and participation in the conversation. Results point to the weaponization of #MeToo in the political context from its inception. It is suggested that #MeToo reflects the polarized political climate in the US and that it can be conceptualized as part of the wider “culture wars” (Hunter 1991) that characterize the public debate.</em></p> Vittoria Bernardini Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 33 49 10.47305/JLIA2137033b SCOPE OF MEDIA ADVOCACY DURING COVID-19: A SELECTED CASE STUDY IN KOLKATA https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/317 <p><em>The spread of the Covid-19 has presented an unparalleled challenge for media management as well as for the media content. The pattern of daily life changed due to the excessive use of media. India, as a nation has been in the third position worldwide, many deaths during a pandemic are concerned. Kolkata being one of the metro cities of the country has not been exempted. The regional media content perceived a knowledge gap with the highest circulated national daily of the country. The changed media content, and audience perception towards the change, and the need for media advocacy during any health crisis in general and Covid-19 in particular, is studied in this paper using a mixed approach of both quantitative and qualitative. The discourse analysis of the newspapers in a constructed week format, representing a six months study during the pandemic, and the primary data from the audience suggested the behavior change and attitude formation through media, in this unique study.</em></p> Rajesh Das Ipsita Banerjee Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 50 71 10.47305/JLIA2137050d THE INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION AND COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE: THE CASE OF NORTH MACEDONIA AND KOSOVO https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/318 <p><em>Communication is a process and part of human identity without which man could not exist today. Intercultural communication is a form of global communication, which refers to intercultural interactions between different cultures that appear in a social group with different religious, social, ethnic, cultural, and social backgrounds. North Macedonia and Kosovo are considered multicultural states which have ethnic identities within them, which are part of the mosaic and the promotion of intercultural communication is a test of the democratic development of these states. Therefore, this study aims to research and analyze the role of intercultural communication between local communities in both countries, communication of local government with the community, and community participation in public meetings as part of local decision-making. The methodology applied in this paper is the study of literature and the development of quantitative research with local communities. The results show that even though the participation of local communities is low in both countries, due to various factors, intercultural communication has broken down barriers between communities and has influenced the initiatives for the organization and development of the community itself.</em></p> Mirlinda Vejseli Ferdi Kamberi Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 72 84 10.47305/JLIA2137072v CHALLENGES AND DIFFICULTIES FOR MICRO-BUSINESSES IN ADAPTING IFRS FOR SMES REQUIREMENTS: KOSOVO EVIDENCE https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/319 <p><em>Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have a vital position in the international economy. The study aims to examine the compulsory financial reporting requirements set by the Kosovo Council for Financial Reporting (KCFR) as well as SMEs requirements for reviewing the current classification in the Kosovo context. This study, like most relevant studies, employs ordinal probit regression to examine the relationships among the requirements defined as dependent variables and other control variables such as necessary reclassification review under KCFR, preferred reclassification review under KCFR, experience knowledge of accountants and auditors, continuously education concerning financial reporting, and assessments of business owners. According to the reported conclusions, the application of these requirements in the Kosovo context does not create any opportunities for SMEs. On the contrary, the findings point to a thorough review of the reporting requirements for micro-businesses, as the current classification appears to be a burden for these businesses.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> Esat A. Durguti Erëza A. Arifi Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 85 101 10.47305/JLIA2137085d THE ASSESSMENT OF FISCAL DEFICIT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TRANSITION COUNTRIES OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/320 <p><em>The overall aim of this research is to observe the impact of fiscal deficit on economic growth in the transition economies of South-eastern Europe. The fixed-effects and dynamic linear regression were used to carry out this revision. The data used in this revision are quantitative data annually and cover the period 2005–2019. The outcomes detect that there is a confident and statistically important effect among the fiscal deficit and economic growth for the transition economies of Southeast Europe, supporting the Keynesian theory. Furthermore, the outcomes of this research show that public debt to GDP, foreign direct investment in GDP, exports, and imports in GDP have an important effect on economic growth. Findings have shown that public debt and imports have a positive influence on economic growth, unlike exports and foreign direct investment, which showed an adverse effect on economic growth. Moreover, for other additional factors, the inflation rate, the employment rate, and the real interest rate, the results of the study do not show any significant consequences on economic growth. The research also contributes in the macroeconomic aspect to the opening of discussions among the relevant stakeholders, including those coming from the policy-making area.</em></p> Luljeta Gllogjani Driton Balaj Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 102 117 10.47305/JLIA2137102g THE E-TOURISM BEYOND COVID-19: A CALL FOR TECHNOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/321 <p><em>The upsurge of Covid-19 changed lifestyles and hit almost every sector. The tourism sector is one of the most affected sectors due to social distancing, ban on crowding, restrictions to visit public places, and grounded airplanes. The study proposed a shift to e-tourism until the Covid-19 get fully curbed. Therefore, this study aims to focus on the tourist’s experiences in Thailand during the Covid-19 pandemic. The study provides insight with the support of literature to help practitioners and researchers to understand, manage, and improve the tourism industry and induce technological transformation to curb the impact of the outbreak. The paper proposes a way to turn Covid-19 into a transformational opportunity. The study used Smart PLS software for analysis and data was collected from the tourist who had intentions to visit Thailand and the ones already in Thailand. The study fills the gap of the call for a transformation of e-tourism and explains the impact of the pandemic on the industry. The study presents the theoretical and practical implications to promote the tourism industry and the transformation of the technology in the Covid-19 pandemic.</em></p> Mohsin Raza Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid Luigi Pio Leonardo Cavaliere Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 118 139 10.47305/JLIA2137118r HOW GOVERNMENT OUTFLOW AND PUBLIC DEBT AFFECT INFLATION: EVIDENCE FROM SEE COUNTRIES https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/322 <p><em>The study aims to address public debt and government outflow affecting inflation in some of the countries of Southeast Europe, observing a combination of factors both theoretically and econometrically. The investigation included six (6) SEE countries, including the 2006-2020 timeframe, with 90 observations. The dynamic approach, the fixed effect, and the Arellano/Bond estimator were used to check the parameters considered in the study using panel data. Furthermore, the study also applied diagnostic tests such as the Sargan over-identifying restrictions and Pedroni test for cointegration. The results of the fixed effect and Arellano / Bond estimation demonstrate that public debt, current budget outflows, and capital budget outflows affect inflation, while overall budget outflows are insignificant. For further studies, it would be useful to apply other dynamic models by applying other specific factors, which will be considered as a useful contribution to the academic, research, and policy-making structures.</em></p> Erëza A. Arifi Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 140 156 10.47305/JLIA2137140a THE LEADERSHIP REQUIREMENT OF THE CRIME OF AGGRESSION UNDER THE ROME STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/323 <p><em>The subject of this analysis was the provisions of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court devoted to the leadership requirement of the crime of aggression. The crime in question is the successor of crimes against peace. This paper employed normative and formal dogmatic legal methods in analyzing the particulars of the leadership clause. Besides, this analysis also took into consideration the case-law of certain judicial bodies. This paper aimed to examine whether the leadership requirement of the crime of aggression has been properly constructed for the Statute. The main focus was on the meaning of the conditions stemming from the leadership clause that each perpetrator ought to fulfill to incur criminal responsibility for the crime of aggression. Additionally, this research addressed the criminal responsibility of public and private actors and the modes of participation in the crime in question. The article established that the leadership requirement concerning the crime of aggression has been aptly incorporated in the Statute since this requirement, at the same time, embraces the post World War Two standards concerning crimes against peace and the contemporary notion of aggression as one of the core crimes under international law.</em></p> Faruk H. Avdic Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 157 178 10.47305/JLIA2137157a FACTORS AFFECTING THE SHARE OF FAKE NEWS ABOUT COVID-19 OUTBREAK ON SOCIAL NETWORKS IN VIETNAM https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/324 <p><em>In recent days in Vietnam, the amount of fake news spreading online about the Covid-19 epidemic has shown signs of increasing, causing information confusion and complicating the situation. This fact has received significant attention from scientists. To supplement the evidence of previous studies, enrich the research literature and make policy recommendations to the Government, this study explores the factors influencing the sharing of fake news on social networks. This study was conducted through a cross-sectional survey using an intentional sampling technique (n = 200) multivariate linear regression analysis technique was applied to prove the hypotheses. Research results show that the factors of altruism, entertainment, socialization, self-promotion, and instant information sharing have a positive and meaningful impact on sharing fake news about Covid_19 on social networks.</em></p> Nguyen Nghi Thanh Phuong Huu Tung Nguyen Hoai Thu Pham Dinh Kien Nguyen Anh Nguyet Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 179 195 10.47305/JLIA2137179t MIGRANTS AND THE PROLIFERATION OF SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS IN THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES: A STUDY OF NORTH-EASTERN NIGERIA SINCE 1999 https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/325 <p><em>This study examines the effects of the proliferation of SALWs on the security of the Nigerian state. Although this issue has seldom been tackled in regular or academic literature, it reflects the author’s keen awareness that, in an era of globalization, migrants have been identified as important agents in the proliferation of SALWs into third-world countries. The paper seeks to provide an insight into the socio-economic and political variables operating in the source and destination of such movements, with particular emphasis on migrants and arms proliferation. The study uses the qualitative approach for data analysis, it relies on upon, data gathered through secondary sources, and is reinforced with the argument on the liberal theoretical framework of analysis. The paper concludes that, while weapons play a significant role in intensifying conflict that exerts enormous human and economic costs, the causes of such conflicts lie in political, economic, ethnic, and religious differences and disparities. Finally, the paper looks at the appropriateness of examining the full implications of SALWs as a border management theme and the role of complementary measures for facilitating border control.</em></p> Theophilus Oyime Adejumo Owa Egbara Owa Ojie Abang Peter Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 196 217 10.47305/JLIA2137196a THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN PEACEBUILDING IN IRAQ AFTER ISIS https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/326 <p><em>The victory over the territorial rule of the so-called Islamic State provides an opportunity for the government of Iraq to restore its state institutions and reassert its authority. Can the Iraqi leadership step beyond cycles of failure in this transition to tackle the systemic issues that sustain state weakness and promote the emergence of groups like ISIS? This paper aims to enlighten the challenges faced by Iraq after ISIS for the restoration of peace between minorities and religious groups, and coexistence after the myth, so that conflicts are going on between minorities and religious groups, particularly in Mosul and other cities under the control of ISIS, the state could not reconcile the displaced people. Correspondingly, this paper intends the focus and role of local, regional, and international media in the process of peacebuilding and coexistence in Iraq after ISIS.</em></p> Araz Ramazan Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 218 228 10.47305/JLIA2137218a ENFORCEMENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION LAW BEFORE THE ALBANIAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT AND THE HIGH COURT https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/327 <p><em>With the entry into force of the Interim Agreement in 2005 between the EU and Albania, Albanian judges had the obligation to partly apply several provisions of the agreement (the EU law) even in the pre-accession stage. This position was reinforced in 2009, with the ratification of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement, which laid down the obligation of the Albanian government to approximate its existing and future legislation in line with EU acquis and ensure proper implementation. Consequently, as of 2009, Albanian courts had to apply the EU law. The application of the EU law by Albanian courts entails the duty of judges with a twofold task: firstly, to construe their arguments in line with EU law or as close as possible, and secondly, to set aside the domestic law which is found to be incompatible with the EU law. This paper outlines some Albanian courts' decisions concerning applying the EU Law before accession to the European Union. The paper argues that Albanian judges have adopted a ‘Euro-friendly’ approach by referring to the EU Law and SAA agreement even in the pre-accession period. Nevertheless, looking closely at court decisions, the EU law is applied as a persuasive source of law to support the court’s decision and not to explain the importance of relying on EU law or CJEU case law.</em></p> Gentjan Skara Bojana Hajdini Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 229 249 10.47305/JLIA2137229s THE CONCEPT OF JUSTICE IN REFERENCE WITH PHILOSOPHIES OF PLATO AND ARISTOTLE: A CRITICAL STUDY https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/328 <p><em>The concept of justice has been a constant issue since its conception. The Greeks also attempted to define justice. They have observed justice as goodness in deeds and so a virtue. In the Greek mind, fairness was an attribute of the spirit or soul, while injustice was a sin. Both Plato and Aristotle defined justice as kindness as well as a desire to follow the law. It alluded to the connection between rights and duties. In human interactions, justice was the pinnacle of excellence and the attitude that animates folks in the right fulfillment of their responsibilities. The development of harmony and peace in thinking and conduct was pre-eminently social. In the same way, Aristotle's and Plato's fairness are complementary; both philosophers seek to discover a concept of ability by which unity, harmony, virtue, and pleasure may be produced in a community. Despite this shared agreement, they are fundamentally different in many ways. In this paper, an attempt has been made by the author to discuss the similarities and dissimilarities in theories of justice propounded by Plato and Aristotle. </em></p> Sooraj Kumar Maurya Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 250 266 10.47305/JLIA21370250m ANONYMITY AND OPENNESS IN GAMETE DONATION: THE RUSSIAN POLICY ON THE THIRD-PARTY REPRODUCTION https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/329 <p><em>The Russian Federation is one of the few jurisdictions where recipients and gamete donors have a wide scope of choice between anonymous, identifiable, and known donations. This paper examines how the Russian law regulates this sphere and how it is applied in practice basing on data collected in the largest reproductive cells bank in Russia. It demonstrates that the Russian Federation should be regarded as a country in which there is no single dominant approach to the matter of donor anonymity. The assessment of this ‘freedom of choice’ is not unambiguous. It gives recipients and donors the right to decide which option is the most suitable for their needs and motivations, simultaneously not resolving which values take precedence over others. The donor-conceived persons’ right to disclose donor’s identifying data sometimes may conflict with the donor’s right to protect their privacy and usually, jurisdictions decide which one has the priority.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> Rafal Lukasiewicz Angelo Viglianisi Ferraro Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 267 279 10.47305/JLIA2137267l CHINA-INDIA NEW INTRICACIES: RIVALRY AND COOPERATION IN A NEW CHANGING GLOBAL CONTEXT https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/331 <p><em>At the changing geopolitical landscape with the Covid-19 pandemic scenario, the China-India tussle and scale of regional and global exposition has begun to display with certain consequences, which seems to shake the existing regional balance of power. A mounting political and military confrontation between these two powers as experts suggested could create a hurdle on regional-global stability and can strike on the path of globalization. With historical and existing context analysis, this paper explores that putting genuine differences aside, China and India being responsible stakeholders of the global community, can cooperate and contribute to regional and global peace and prosperity. This paper is based on qualitative research and explorative form in a pattern. This paper concludes that to reduce protracted political and border-related tensions, continuous institutional dialogue, regular communication, and formal-informal exchanges could be effective tools for a peaceful resolution. At this juncture, the competition and cooperation approach could be useful for fostering China-India bilateral relations, and this situation will help to address common challenges of the global community, restructure the global order, and re-adjust regional and global scenarios crippled by the Covid-19 pandemic.</em></p> Buddhi Prasad Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 280 298 10.47305/JLIA2137280sh ALBANIA-GREECE SEA ISSUE THROUGH THE HISTORY FACTS AND THE FUTURE OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/332 <p><em>The issue of the sea between Albania and Greece has been and continues to be an object of study for various authors. Research shows so far that many studies have tried to go slightly from the descriptive to the explanatory and analytical framework and have generally fallen into the ‘trap’ of subjective approaches creating the phenomenon of nationalism. That appears in different forms, damaging the spirit of friendship and cooperation between both countries. This paper analyzes relations between Albania and Greece and their evolution based on international acts until the decision of the Albanian Constitutional Court annulling the agreement between them on the issue of the sea as incompatible with the constitution in terms of absolute objectivity. The demands of the Greek state for extension with 12 miles under the magnifying glass of the interpretation of the norms of the international law of the sea, the principle of equality and equity are part of the insistence on gaining superiority in the sea area vis-à-vis Albania. All this leading to the dialogue for another treaty cooperation and friendship occupy a vital part of the facts, which constitute an ongoing open discussion about the future of the sea issue on the Hague International Court.</em></p> Senada Reci Luljeta Zefi Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 299 309 10.47305/JLIA2137299r A PRUDENTIAL PERSONALIST ETHICAL APPRAISAL OF HUMAN CLONING https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/333 <p><em>Numerous uncertainties are hanging over the biotechnology of human cloning which has prompted medical ethicists and religious organizations to ask questions that bordered on its ethical and religious considerations. In cloning humans, ethical and religious issues arise both in its clinical and laboratory settings hence, the morality of manipulating human genes is the foremost ethical issue among scientists and religious scholars. Therefore, this paper evaluated the human cloning technology using the personalism and prudential personalism ethical-religious models to arrive at a workable moral paradigm. To achieve this objective, the paper employed the phenomenological and critical-literary literature review methods. The paper argued that previous ethical and religious researches have not adequately employed the ‘ideal’ ethical models to appraise the morality of human cloning hence; using the personalism and prudential personalism ethical-religious models were appropriate to reveal that every human life has worth and its commodification is an aberration. The paper concluded that based on the paradigm of prudential personalist ethics, cloning humans (especially, human reproductive cloning) negates respect for human life, human dignity, and communal goods hence it should not be practiced.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> Peter O.O. Ottuh Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 310 330 10.47305/JLIA2137310o THE NATURE OF THE ENGAGEMENT OF THE UNITED STATES IN THE SYRIAN CRISIS: A THEMATIC ANALYSIS https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/334 <p><em>The complications of the Syrian crisis that has extended over six years are overseen on three distinct levels which are national, topographical, and global. A closer look at the situation in Syria in 2010/2011 will help explain why the regime has survived, the complexities of the situation in Syria, and what makes the search for a stable political settlement so difficult. The purpose of the present study is to highlight the nature of US engagement in the Syrian crisis which involves maintaining the US military presence for regional stability, ensuring the enduring defeat of ISIS, countering the future expansion of the Iranian influence and political settlement to the conflict, containing the Assad’s regime in the interim. By outlining various threats, issues, assessing the Syrian conflict and its key actors, this paper seeks to explain the US response to the Syrian crisis on basis of thematic analysis. In conclusion, the United States' foreign policy has continued in a region vital to its national security interests due to available oil, its impetus to protect Israel, to support security by retaining military bases, to preserve the position of the protectorate of client states, and friendly regimes, and to resist Islamic movements and terrorism.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> Zainaddin M. Khidhir Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 331 344 10.47305/JLIA2137331k RUSSIA AND COVID-19: RUSSIAN ADAPTIVE AUTHORITARIANISM DURING THE PANDEMIC https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/335 <p><em>This paper explores Russia’s response to Covid-19, with a focus on its implications for political freedoms and human rights across the country. It investigates the relationship between the pandemic and reinforcing authoritarianism in Russia. This paper is an in-depth case analysis that uses policy analysis and process tracing to examine Russia’s response to Covid-19 and its effects on Russian domestic politics. The study concludes that the Russian authorities have considerably abused Covid-19-related restrictive measures, not least through curtailing the freedom of assembly and expression. In doing so the Russian authorities have conveniently shielded themselves from mass protests amid constitutional amendments and upcoming legislative elections. Nevertheless, while the authoritarian practices that the Kremlin resorted to during the pandemic are not much different from those of other authoritarian regimes, they proved insufficient in curbing anti-regime dissent. This study inquires into the political repercussions of crisis management in authoritarian regimes and concludes that their authoritarian reactions lead to further crackdowns on civil liberties and political freedoms. </em></p> Aram Terzyan Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 345 355 10.47305/JLIA2137345t EGYPT-TURKEY RELATIONS TOWARDS LIBYA: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/336 <p><em>Egypt and Turkey makeup about half of the whole population of the Middle East and are the two leading nations in the eastern Mediterranean, including Iran as a whole. Both countries are now recognized as the two most tremendous modern military forces in the Middle East. Besides, Cairo and Ankara are major Muslim centers: the Al-Azhar Mosque in Egypt is the largest Islamic University in the world and a significant feature of Egyptian soft power; the historical association between Turkey and the last Islamic Caliphate is viewed in the region with great nostalgia. Given these similarities, a deep rivalry between the two countries exists around the world, while Ankara and Cairo have increasingly prevented overt aggression or conflicts. After the Arab Spring, tensions have intensified and, in effect, impacts Libya, Sudan, and the Eastern Mediterranean region. Along with the increased risk of an overt war between the two nations, the rivalry between Turkey and Egypt also challenges the delicate security of the Middle East. It indicates that it needs an international mediator to answer this thorny problem.</em></p> Abdulrahman Al-Fawwaz Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 356 372 10.47305/JLIA2137356af CHINA’S BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE AND GEORGIA: A SHORT OVERVIEW https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/337 <p><em>Since the beginning of the 2000s, China has embarked on an unprecedented path of economic development, as evidence of which is the largest economic project of the XXI century initiated by the People's Republic of China. The global Belt and Road Initiative announced by the first person of the country, Xi Jinping, is a shortened name of the ‘Silk Road Economic Belt’ and ‘XXI Century Maritime Silk Road’. It covers the Asia-Pacific, Europe, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, West Asia, and Africa and involves more than a hundred countries, international organizations, and leading economic actors. The main participants in the project are China, Mongolia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Poland, Germany, the Netherlands, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iran, and India. The article reviews the role of the Chinese project in a global context. The paper focuses on the role and purpose of Georgia in the Belt and Road Initiative. This study will try to reveal the results for the benefit of Georgia, which is one of the participating countries, and the role of China through research to be made from documents and academic studies on the subject. Georgia tries to conduct its relations with China, as a partner in the project, with a policy of balance without disturbing its relations with the West.</em></p> Ekaterine Lomia Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3 373 385 10.47305/JLIA2137373l Cover Page and Table of Contents https://www.e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/article/view/330 <p><span class="text14_333"><span class="blue16"><em>Journal of Liberty and International Affairs </em>is a triannual (3 issues per year), international, open-access, and peer-reviewed journal published by the<em> Institute for Research and European Studies. </em>It welcomes submissions from political sciences, international relations, international law, and related fields. The journal embraces multi- and interdisciplinary scholarship and comparative approaches.&nbsp;</span></span>The journal is <a href="http://e-jlia.com/index.php/jlia/ia">indexed</a> in SCOPUS, EBSCO, DOAJ, CEEOL, SSOAR, ERIHPLUS, HeinOnline, ANVUR, Columbia International Affairs Online, ProQuest, UGC-CARE List Group II, etc.</p> Journal of Liberty and International Affairs Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 7 3